Sanskrit & Pali Languages

This glossary includes important concepts from a range of philosophical, spiritual and religious traditions in Sanskrit and Pali.

The majority of Sanskrit and Pali concepts originating from ancient India, although corresponding concepts from Tibetan Buddhism, Chan Buddhism, Zen Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism and more have also been included where relevant.

The concepts included have been drawn upon the language first introduced in four of the most influential ancient texts on yoga: The Bhagavad Gita, Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Upanishads and Hatha Yoga Pradipika. The names of yoga poses or body-work (asana) have been excluded from this glossary because they require an exhaustive glossary of their own with approximately 1,000 in total, which originate from approximately 84 basic original poses plus their respective variations and modernised counterparts.

The various types of breathwork (pranayama) and other practices have, however, been included as fully as possible in a short glossary entry. The main yogic philosophical teachings have been included as well as the later developed paths of yoga.

A

Abhinivesa
Abhyantara Kumbhaka
Abhyasa
Acarya
Adhara
Advaita
Advaita Vedanta
Ahamkara
Agni Pran
Agni Sara
Ahamkara
Ahimsa
Ajna
Akasa
Allama Prabhudeva
Amanska
Amaratva
Amari
Amaroli
Anahata
Ananda
Anandabhairava
Anapana
Anga
Animan
Antara
Antaraya
Anuloma Pranayama
Anusara Yoga
Apana
Aparigraha
Arambha
Artha
Arundhati
Asana
Asmita
Asmita Samadhi
Ashtanga Yoga
Asteya
Atman
Avidya

B

Bahiranga
Bahiranga Sadhana
Bahya Pranayama
Bandha
Bhagavad Gita
Bhakti
Bhakti Yoga
Bhairava
Bhastrika Pranayama
Bhadra
Bhanuki
Bhujangi
Bhutas
Bileshaya
Bindu
Bindunatha
Brahma
Brahmacarya
Brahman
Brahmarandhra
Brahmari Pranayama
Brahma Nadi
Buddha
Buddhi

C

Chakra
Charpati
Chaurangi
Cit
Citta
Citta Vrtti Nirodha

D

Dana
Darsana
Desa
Dharana
Dharani
Dharma
Dhauti
Dhautikarman
Dhyana
Dhyana Mudra
Dhyana Yoga
Dhayata
Digra Pranayama
Drastr
Drsya
Dukha
Dvesa

E

Ekagrata

G

Ganesha
Ganga
Ghata
Ghodacholi
Goraksha
Gunas

H

Hasta Mudra
Hatha Yoga Pradipika
Hatha Yoga

I

Ida
Indriyas
Integral Yoga
Ishvara
Isvarapranidhana
Iyengar Yoga

J

Jalandhara Bandha
Japa
Jivanmukti
Jivatman
Jnana Yoga

K

Kaivalya
Kakachandishvara
Kala
Kanda
Kaneri
Kandakapalika
Kanthadi
Kapalabhati Pranayama
Kapalabhatikarman
Kapali
Kapalika
Karana
Karma
Karma Yoga
Karman
Kedara
Kevala
Kevalakumbhaka
Khanda
Khechari
Khecharimudra
Klesa
Kriya
Kriya Yoga
Korantaka
Ksipta
Kumbhaka Pranayama
Kundalini
Kundalini Yoga
Kutilangi

L

Langhana
Laya
Laya Yoga
Lila

M

Macharya
Madhyamarga
Mahabandha
Mahapatha
Mahat
Mahavedha
Mala
Manas
Mandala
Manthana
Manipura
Mantra
Manonmani
Matsyendra
Maya
Mrgi Mudra
Mudha
Mudra
Mulabhanda
Muladhara
Murchha
Myrobalan

N

Nada
Nadi
Nadi Sodhana Pranayama
Namaste
Naradeva
Nauli
Naulikarman
Nauli Kriya
Neti
Netikarman
Nidra
Nimitta Karana
Nityanatha
Nirodhi
Nishpatti
Niyama
Niralamba
Niranjana
Nirvana

O

Om

P

Padma
Paramapada
Paramatman
Parichaya
Paridhana
Parvati
Prajna
Prana
Pranayama
Prithvi
Pingala
Plavini
Pujyapada
Purana

R

Raja
Raja Yoga
Rudra
Rudrani

S

Sahajoli
Sahaja
Sahaja Shambhavi
Sahaja Yoga
Sahajoli
Sahasrara
Sahita
Samadhi
Sattvik
Shabara
Shakti
Shaktichalana
Shala
Shambavi
Shambavimudra
Shambhu
Shastra
Shiva
Shitali Pranayama
Shmashana
Shunyashunya
Shunyapadavi
Siddha
Siddhapada
Siddhi
Sila
Sitkari
Sthira
Sunjabhedana
Sukkha
Surananda
Suryabhedana
Surya Namaskar
Sushumna
Svadisthana

T

Takshaka
Tantra
Tantra Yoga
Tapa
Tattva
Tintini
Trataka
Trakatakarman
Turya

U

Uddiyana
Uddiyanabandha
Udgit Pranayama
Ujjayi Pranayama
Unmani 
Upanishads

V

Vajroli
Vasana
Vasti
Vastikarman
Vedas
Vedanta
Viloma Pranayama
Vinavishnu
Vissudhu
Vinyasa
Vinyasa Krama
Vinyasa Yoga
Viparitakarani
Vyomachakra

Y

Yama
Yamuna
Yantra
Yin Yoga
Yogi – also Yogini
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali
Yoni Mudra