भगवद्गीता: bhagavad-gītā

| proper noun |

The literal meaning of Bhagavad Gita is “Song of the Lord”. It is the classic Hindu scripture comprising 18 chapters of 700-verses, often referred to as simply “the Gita” and the exact date of its composition is unknown. Scholars accept dates that vary from the second to fifth century BC. Bhagavad Gita is part of the Hindu epic text Mahabharata as chapters 23–40 of the 6th book of Mahabharata.

The setting of Bhagavad Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life. It is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide and charioteer Lord Krishna. Facing the duty as a warrior to fight the righteous war between Pandavas and Kauravas, Arjuna is counselled by Lord Krishna to fulfil his warrior duty as a warrior and establish dharma.

The ancient Hindu scripture present a synthesis of the concept of dharma (path) and moksha (liberation attained through jnana, bhakti, karma and raja yoga) and Samkhya philosophy (one of the six schools of Hindu philosophy). 

Although there are a number of similar philosophical teachings, there is no reference to the Bhagavad Gita in the Buddhist literature, namely the Tripitaka, and the Buddha refers to three vedas rather than four.